A harbor (American English), harbour (British English; see spelling differences), or haven is a sheltered body of water where ships, boats, and barges can be docked. The term harbor is often used interchangeably with port, which is a man-made facility built for loading and unloading vessels and dropping off and picking up passengers. Ports usually include one or more harbors. Alexandria Port in Egypt is an example of a port with two harbors.
Harbors may be natural or artificial. An artificial harbor can have deliberately constructed breakwaters, sea walls, or jettys or they can be constructed by dredging, which requires maintenance by further periodic dredging. An example of an artificial harbor is Long Beach Harbor, California, United States, which was an array of salt marshes and tidal flats too shallow for modern merchant ships before it was first dredged in the early 20th century. In contrast, a natural harbor is surrounded on several sides by prominences of land. Examples of natural harbors include Sydney Harbour, Australia and Trincomalee Harbour in Sri Lanka.
== History ==
As a rule, the harbor is called the water area of the port, directly adjacent to the berth am, where the loading and unloading of ships, embarkation and disembarkation of passengers are carried out. Also in the harbor, ships can be at a long anchorage at the pier or at anchor. For this purpose, special places for anchorage will be equipped on the territory of the harbor.The harbor can be artificial or natural. For a natural harbor, choose a place well protected from waves and wind, surrounded on several sides by land areas.
Examples of natural harbors are Sydney Harbour, Australia and Trincomalee Harbor in Sri Lanka.
An artificial harbor usually has purpose-built breakwaters, and dredging is also used in the construction of artificial harbors. Natural harbors require maintenance through periodic depth measurements and, if necessary, further periodic dredging. An example of an artificial harbor is Long Beach Harbor, California, USA, which was an array of salt marshes and tidal banks too shallow for modern merchant ships. At the beginning of the 20th century, dredging works were carried out here.
== Artificial harbors ==
Artificial harbors are frequently built for use as ports. The oldest artificial harbor known is the Ancient Egyptian site at Wadi al-Jarf, on the Red Sea coast, which is at least 4500 years old (ca. 2600-2550 BCE, reign of King Khufu). The largest artificially created harbor is Jebel Ali in Dubai. Other large and busy artificial harbors include:
Port of Houston, Texas, United States;
Port of Long Beach, California, United States;
Port of Los Angeles in San Pedro, California, United States.
Port of Rotterdam, Netherlands;
Port of Savannah, Georgia, United States;The Ancient Carthaginians constructed fortified, artificial harbors called cothons.
== Natural harbors ==
A natural harbor is a landform where a section of a body of water is protected and deep enough to allow anchorage. Many such harbors are rias. Natural harbors have long been of great strategic naval and economic importance, and many great cities of the world are located on them. Having a protected harbor reduces or eliminates the need for breakwaters as it will result in calmer waves inside the harbor. Some examples are:
== Ice-free harbors ==
For harbors near the North and South poles, being ice-free is an important advantage, especially when it is year-round. Examples of these are:
Nakhodka in Nakhodka Bay, Russia
Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
Prince Rupert, Canada
Valdez, United States
Vostochny Port, RussiaThe world's southernmost harbor, located at Antarctica's Winter Quarters Bay (77° 50′ South), is sometimes ice-free, depending on the summertime pack ice conditions.
== Important harbors ==
Although the world's busiest port is a contested title, in 2017 the world's busiest harbor by cargo tonnage was the Port of Ningbo-Zhoushan.The following are large natural harbors:
== See also ==
== Notes ==
== External links ==
Harbor Maintenance Finance and Funding Congressional Research Service
"Harbor" . New International Encyclopedia. 1905.
desertquitabandonrun offbanishejectforsakeevictthrow outturn outoutleaveriskdropdistancetransportforgettroublethreatdanger